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Mobile Phones Prior To Saran Wrap

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SARAN WRAP

Preventing saran wrap infections caused by nosocomial bacteria is a major issue for the emergency departments. Patients in the emergency rooms may not only contract infection when receiving treatments, but could also spread the infection to others in the hospital or even hospital staff due to their own illness. Bacteria and viruses can be carried by the airborne droplet nuclei of large droplets of particles, or by direct contact with patients and their surroundings.

There are numerous recommendations for the prevention and control of hospital infections, which include environmental hygiene, hand hygiene, antibiotics stewardship and vaccinations. One of them is that hand hygiene is the simplest method. Numerous studies have proven that regular washing can effectively control and reduce the risk of the spread of infections.

Making use of mobile phones to communicate is a standard practice in emergency departments. However many studies have revealed that they can act as agents for the spread of viruses and bacteria. Thus, some hospital personnel began wrapping their mobile phones in plastic as they believed it could lessen the likelihood of contamination. This study evaluated the efficiency of plastic wrapping in decreasing bacterial contamination on the surfaces of mobile phones.

2 Method

We made use of the mobile phones of 6 people working in the emergency department with two people in each group. When the initial two participants collaborated, they randomly picked who would be using a phone that was wrapped in wrapped in plastic. Then, when the 2nd and third participants collaborated on the next stage of the experiment, the mobile phone was removed and placed inside a brand new packaging made of plastic package. A total of 4 phases were run for each group. That includes twice with plastic wraps and once without.

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We recorded the bacterial colonies on mobile phone’s surfaces at different time points (Fig. 1). We made use of cotton swabs for collecting the bacteria that resided on the phone after each 6 hour work shift. We also used sterilized cotton swabs to scratch the phone’s surfaces and used them to construct Agar plates. After 48 hours of incubation in a 37 degC air-conditioned environment, we counted the bacterial colonies that grew in the top of the Mueller Hinton agars. To avoid the possibility of bias the same person took the swab before wrapping the cell phone. The steps that are necessary in this procedure are outlined in Figure 1.

The experimental process

and descriptions of the sample at six timing points. After using culture dishes to identify the cultured colonies of bacterial, we applied a 3 M Clean-Trace luminometer (Taipei, Taiwan) to identify colonies on phones’ surfaces. This luminometer works in conjunction with Clean-Trace testing of surfaces as well as water tests to determine the amount of contamination within samples, and the results are readily available within a matter of seconds. Adenosine Triphosphate is a common method of measuring biological residues, and is an effective way to evaluate the hygienic status of a surface. The 3 M Clean-Trace Luminometer cell counts are determined by the levels of triphosphate of adenosine. The time and steps of the experiment are identical to the culture dishes as is the amount of tests.

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The statistical techniques employed were Wilcoxon Signed rank tests as well as Mann-Whitney U tests to determine if there were notable differences before and after the alcohol disinfection. After a shift, differences in the level of bacterial colonies, or contamination on the surfaces of mobile phones prior to and after covering them with plastic was recorded. The study does not require the collection of any health records or body fluids that are related with the body of a human. The purpose of this study is to determine the colony of bacteria on the phone. The institution review board of the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital waived the need to obtain ethical approval for this study.

Results

The outcomes of the luminometer and culture dishes are shown in the appendix file. The initial time point represented the condition of the phone prior to work. It was clear that bacteria on the surface of the phones were brought to the hospital from the home.
In comparing the first and second time points using making use of Wilcoxon sign-rank tests we discovered that 75% alcohol Sanitizers successfully reduced the bacteria colonies that reside on phones’ surfaces.

We compared fourth and fifth time points and found the same result. With or without the plastic wraps, a 75% alcohol solution decreased the colony. At the third time point of the test the recently put in place phone wraps made of plastic were clean, and made even cleaner after disinfection with the alcohol sanitizer. Table 1The effect of alcohol disinfection on the mobile phone and poly wrap. We then compared the data of the mobile phones with without wrapped in plastic

in the 6th time point to the fourth time point with wrapping with the Mann-Whitney U test. After the work shift, we discovered colonies glued to the surfaces of both the mobile phones and plastic wraps. There was no evident difference between the two kinds of phones. We also compared phones using and without plastic wraps on the sixth period. We observed that the plastic wraps significantly reduced amount of bacterial colonies that were found on the phones’ surfaces.

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Discussion


Bacteria and viruses are spread through three different ways: droplets in contact with the air and through contact. The common pathogens transmitted by droplets are Hemophilus influenzae, Group A Streptococcus, Bordetella pertussis respiratory viruses, seasonal influenza and meningococcal disease. As part of standard precautions wearing a surgical face mask is a good droplet protection to the health professional.


Concerning transmission via contact, according to previous studies that patients infected by multidrug-resistant organisms are identified in the emergency room. The pathogens transmitted in this manner include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii and other enteric pathogens. The prevention of contact involves the use of protective clothing and gloves during patient care to prevent healthcare personnel from being affected by these pathogens and spreading them to other patients.

Airborne transmission

As for airborne transmission, the pathogens that can be transmitted through the emergency department such as measles and tuberculosis influenza, tuberculosis, and the severe acute respiratory disorder syndrome. A suitable protection method to avoid droplets getting infected by nuclei within the air requires the use of N95 or electric purifying respirators. When the coronavirus virus 2019 (COVID-19) started to manifest within Wuhan, China, in December of this year, it quickly spread worldwide.

The first COVID-19 case in Taiwan was confirmed on January 21, 2019. Several strategies for infection prevention in hospitals were suggested, including restricting the number of simultaneous visitors as well as drive-through pharmacies for patients with medication control, and new techniques and equipment for testing patients who are suspected to be infected with COVID-19. Another recommendation was to deny admission to the hospital when a patient had either previous contact or travel history , and manifested signs of fever or an upper respiratory infection.

Hand hygiene using alcohol-based hand cleansers is widely used to avoid cross-contamination with COVID-19, and has been found to be an extremely effective, simplest and least expensive procedures. Today electronic devices like mobile phones, laptops, and desktop computers are vital components of everyday life. While people are instructed not to cleanse their hands regularly and to keep their overall hygiene in check However, they aren’t cleaning these devices (e.g. touchscreens keyboards, touch screens) regularly as they ought to.

Studies bacteria

According to studies bacteria could not just collect and live on keyboards but on the mobile phones. The most common pathogens on mobile phones include Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, S. aureus, Micrococcus species Enterobacter species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterococcus species. This includes not only pathogens but also bacteria that are resistant to many drugs such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus.[8Furthermore, viruses may also be in mobile devices.

Some viruses that were previously seen at the bottom of mobiles are noroviruses, influenza viruses as well as rotaviruses and respiratory syncytial virus. The transmission of infectious diseases through mobile phones isn’t restricted to medical centers because phones are ubiquitous in every community and have proven to be a possible way to transmit.
Although previous research has found that 70% alcohol wipes can reduce the amount of colonies , and also reduce the risk of nosocomial infection, alcohol could cause damage to phones, which may account for people being reluctant to use this method.


Based on the results of our study According to our findings, bacterial colonies might be present on mobile phones both before and after medical personnel employ them for work. Wiping with 75% alcohol-based sanitizers will effectively decrease the amount of colonies found on mobile phone or its temporary plastic covering. Plastic wrap is inexpensive and simple to replace. A mobile phone that is wrapped in plastic can be fully cleaned with alcohol, while not having alcohol come into contact with the phone itself. We also discovered that bacterial colonies don’t get into or stick to plastic wrap as easily as they do to mobile phones.


Limitations


Our research has several drawbacks, like the small samplesize, the different hygiene practices between participants, the differences in work load and amount of contact with patients and the amount of phones used as well as other factors that could affect the results. To mitigate potential bias, the sampling, plastic wrapping and determination of the number of colonies on wraps and phones were all conducted by the same individual.


Conclusion


To summarize the results of our experiment We believe that wrapping cellphones in wrapped plastic is a reliable method to stop them from being vectors for the transmission of bacterial infections.

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