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How to Research Stocks Before You Buy 

The stock market promises reliable wealth development opportunities. Several techniques allow you to improve your investment decisions. However, you require appropriate investment research before you invest in stocks and firms. This post discusses how to do stock research. 

What Is Stock Research? 

Stock research means gathering and analyzing the data on a company’s business model and financial performance before buying, holding, or selling a stock due to its risk-reward dynamics. For example, investment research firms create datasets to generate investment advice to help investors. 

While the stock market has helped many retail and institutional investors grow their wealth, several investors have also lost their financial gains due to corporate mismanagement or external problems. 

Therefore, stock analysts and equity research firms attempt to quantify the volatility that affects the long-term ROI (return on investment) of buying or selling a stock. You want to learn how to do stock research and understand what stock research reports (advice) mean. 

Components of Stock Research 

1| Business Modelling Analytics 

A company’s stock appreciates when its business model remains resilient against external pressure. Its customers, suppliers, finances, and liabilities influence its business development strategies. So, investors must build reasonably precise business models to evaluate whether to invest in the company’s stocks. 

2| Corporate Strengths and Weaknesses 

Every corporation has strategic advantages in some business aspects. However, no business is a flawless or perfect enterprise. SWOT analysis involves auditing the business’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It is essential when you research stocks before you buy them. 

For example, a company with work-from-home (WFH) positions can tap into an international talent pool (i.e., a strength) without the additional transportation costs or real estate liabilities. However, you might notice high employee attrition (weakness) after SWOT investigations. 

3| Growth Potential and Financial Assessments 

Diligent investment research firms perform cash flow analysis on the company’s assets and liabilities. After all, investors want to find a balance between the business’s assets and liabilities that affects the return on investment (ROI) of stocks. 

Financial statements and balance sheets include numerical data that reflects whether the screened stocks have reliable growth potential. Otherwise, the liabilities might be incompatible with the investor’s risk tolerance. E.g., colossal debt burden diminishing actual profits of the company. 

Equity research firms and investment advisors focus on predictive analytics to estimate the future earnings of the target company profile. However, the accuracy of income projections relies on investment research firms’ quality, experience, and professionalism. 

4| Valuation Data 

Valuation considers the realized and unrealized earnings of the business by studying all the company’s departments. However, you cannot get a 100% accurate valuation. Instead, you will observe that the analysts’ judgment and business acumen affect the finalized valuation reports. 

Investors want to know if the current stock prices are reasonable from the valuation point of view. For example, your team might notice inconsistencies between company valuation and calculated fair stock prices. Therefore, investment research firms practice proper care when recommending an investment call. 

5| Corporate Culture and Managerial Leadership 

The most attractive business model can fail within a week if the company cannot create a fair and inspiring workplace. How leaders and managers treat their employees can increase or decrease employee turnover. 

If the company’s culture rewards hard work, creativity, and team spirit, its stocks will grow fast due to the resulting strategic productivity gains. Still, investors must avoid stock options that link to toxic and unfair company culture. 

6| Target Price Calculations 

High and low target prices concerning a stock emphasize the P/E ratio (profit to earnings ratio) and multiply it with estimated earnings per share or EPS. So, you will discover the “price band” between the high and low target stock prices. 

Price band in stock research reports means the range of prices indicating the future performance of stock curves/trends. Also, they guide investors in understanding the risks vs. rewards dynamics. i.e., how much money will the investors earn or lose if they buy, hold, or sell a stock? 

How to Research Stocks Before You Buy 

Step #1| Learn Types of Stock Analysis and Choose a Suitable One 

Investment and equity research firms offer several stock analytics solutions that you can classify into three broad categories. 

  • Fundamental analysis involves cash flow (inflow and outflow) studies to predict how the stock might perform financially after a specified period. 
  • The quantitative analysis leads to advanced statistical modeling that describes and assesses the stock value fluctuations corresponding to market variables. 
  • Technical analysis extracts historical stock performance insights by leveraging data on price shifts and trading patterns to estimate and project future growth. 

These techniques help you research stocks and create investment recommendation reports. Nevertheless, investors must always note how these stock research methods exhibit advantages and disadvantages. 

Fundamental analysis is the most critical type of stock analytics. After all, you learn how the company performs in actual conditions when you use investment research firms for fundamental stock reports. 

Step #2| Create Risk Profile and Budget Plan 

Investors and their advisors must be transparent about how much money they intend to expose to a mutually agreed upon risk appetite. For example, younger investors have many years before they retire, while older investors have more investable capital resources. 

Consider how losing money in the stock market will impact you or your client’s lifestyle. 

Step #3| Select Metrics for Investment Research Services 

Return on equity and assets is a valuable metric in stock research, and the price/book ratio must also matter to you, like the P/E ratio. Likewise, other parameters will be free cash flow and net profit margins. 

However, value investors focus on P/E ratios lower than the intrinsic value for safety against volatility. Meanwhile, growth investors focus on the company’s revenue. 

Step #4| Identify and Use Sources for Investment Metrics Data 

Equity research firms and investment advisors utilize the securities and exchange commission (SEC) reports in stock research. Additionally, they monitor the company’s press releases. Online brokerage research tools and stock screeners have become popular. Besides, industry trend reports are vital in sector-wise stock valuation analytics. 

Step #5| Narrowing the Research on Most Compatible Stocks 

The final step of creating a stock research report and investment advice is to compare the output obtained in the above steps to justify the buy, hold, or sell calls. Moreover, you want to predict the stock trends using reliable statistical computer models. Therefore, you can strategically decide to invest in risk-compatible stocks before you buy them through investment research firms. 

What Is Stock Research Report? 

Compiling the steps, datasets, and investment insights into a single document means creating a stock research report. Also, this report describes the following components of stock research. 

  1. Different stock performance metrics, 
  2. How the equity/investment research firms have evaluated them, 
  3. and why the investors must go for the buy or sell calls. 


You have learned how to research company stocks before you buy them (or hold/sell them). Stock markets are one of the prominent instruments of wealth creation and expansion. However, incorrect stock evaluation or unprofessional equity research firms can endanger the investor portfolio. 

Therefore, knowing how to research stocks is crucial for investors, fund managers, and investment research services. You want experienced advice on valuation, target price calculation, data gathering, and historical performance analytics to select a company’s stock. 

SG Analytics, a leader among investment research firms, supports investors and corporations in their stock evaluation and price modeling operations. Contact us today if you require data-driven insights into buy-side and sell-side equity decisions. 

Jack henry
Jack henry
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