The principles of just how objects react in the physical environment are the focus of the design alternative known as physical design. It is a crucial discipline for both designers and manufacturers which covers anything from furniture design to architecture in vlsi engineering.

The idea that items ought to be portable and lightweight is one of the most crucial physical design ideas. Because of this, designers frequently concentrate on making things that are simple to operate and transport. When creating an object, it’s essential to take us into account. For illustration, a chair needs to be cosy to sit in for a while yet being strong enough to support a person’s weight. And for the manufacture of aesthetically appealing items, physical design is equally crucial. This reason, distinguishing features concentrates on producing beautiful items.

For instance, a chair could have a modern, aesthetically beautiful, and useful design.

Individuals who have recently begun their career in the VLSI (very large scale integration) physical design field have to comprehend every step of the pcb design board. Every input current of the VLSI physical design cycle includes a specialised EDA tool that precisely addresses all the definitive links to the work at hand. The ability of all EDA tools to both import and export various file types enables the construction of flexible VLSI design flows that incorporate numerous tools from various suppliers. The method for turning a netlist into a layout is called physical design. The layout, placement of all logical cells, clock tree synthesis, and routing are the primary physical design steps. Constraints on timing, power, development, and technology must satisfy during this physical design phase. It may be necessary to optimize future designs in terms of space, timing and performance.

A concise summary of each phase in the VLSI Physical Design Flow seems to be as follows:

Design or Netlist In import

  1. Import a netlist or design
  1. It is consider as the initial step
  2. All design and constraint files, including the netlist, sdc, upf, def, technological file, logical and physical libraries, and tlu+ file, are integrate with this stage.

Floor planning or chip planning

The main stage in the physical design cycle is this. The netlist in this stage explains the design, the alternative design blocks, and the connections between the various components. The ASIC architecture is logically describe by the netlist. The ASIC design’s floor plan is its descriptive paragraph. We map the sensible reason for the design to the physical description in floor planning.

  1. The process of floor planning involves arranging blocks and macros in the chip and core region.
  2. Determine the core and die’s width and height.
  3. Find the cell or macro’s present position.
  4. Decide where to put the I/O pins.
  5. Developing the Chip’s Pad Ring.
  6. The reduction of space and time are the goals of floor layout.


  1. The technique of inserting regular cells in the pattern is called placement. Each standard cell on the die is detect by the tool. These cells are position by the tool base on internal algorithms.
  1. The standard cells that are present in the synthesis netlist are not the only cells that are placed. The design is also optimize by it. Additionally, placement affects how routable your design is.
  2. Placement will be determine by a variety of factors, including time, congestion, and power optimization.
  3. The goal of placement is to maximize the scheduling, power, timing DRCs, pin and cell density, and area.
  4. The location needs to be able to transmit data.

Clock Tree Synthesis (CTS)-

  1. In order to make certain that the clock signals are delivered equally to all sequential parts in a design, a procedure called clock tree synthesis (CTS) is used.
  2. In order to achieve the least amount of skew, CTS consists of inserting buffers or inverters along the clock channels of the system.
  3. The goal of CTS is to achieve clock tree objectives like minimum skew and lowest insertion latency as well as clock tree design rule limitations like maximum transition, maximum load capacitance, and optimum fanout.


  1. After CTS, there is a procedure called routing that chooses the exact pathways for interconnections.
  2. Routing is nothing more than linking the different chip blocks to one another.
  3. After CTS, we have knowledge of every cell that was inserted, every obstruction, each clock tree buffer and inverter, and every I/O pin. For the tool to finish all the relationships specified in the netlist, essential information is crucial.
  4. The electrical connections in the layout specify by the logical connections provide in the netlist are made at the routing step using metal plus vias.
  5. The purpose of routing is to minimise overall wire length, satisfy time requirements, and avoid LVS and DRC problems.
  6. The routing procedure consists of a number of stages: A global routing plan would include: b track assignment, c detailed sequencing, and d search and repair.

Physical Verification and Signoff-

  1. Your layout is finish after the routing stage. We must do sign off checks at this step, such as physical verification checks, and timing analyses, including logical equivalence tests.
  2. We carry out physical verification tests, including Design Vs Schematic (LVS), Design Rule Check (DRC), Electrical Rule Check (ERC), and Antenna Check.
  3. The netlist we originate with (pre-layout/synthesis netlist) and the netlist provide by the tool after PnR will be compare during the equivalence check (post layout netlist).
  4. DRC checks to see if the submitted layout corresponds with the design specifications given by the fabrication team. DRC examinations are nothing more than physical examinations of the through, minimum width, and spacing regulations between metals, among other rules.
  5. A crucial step in the physical verification process is LVS. To determine whether or whether their strong correlations are the same, the layout is compare to the schematic. If so, the LVS records clean results.


These are all the basic insights one needs to have before learning the skill in depth.

Any web developer has to be proficient in physical design. You can design user interfaces that look fantastic and function effectively on many devices. You may design an interface that’s also visually appealing and simple to use by utilising a variety of device kinds. Therefore, it is still fairly useful today, and mastering it is not a difficult or time-consuming endeavour.

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