23.4 C
New York
Thursday, May 23, 2024

Custom Monoclonal Immune Production Services 

The production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is critical to researching and treating many infectious and non-infectious diseases. Custom monoclonal antibodies have proven particularly useful in treating certain types of cancer. Significantly, monoclonal antibodies have been used in research, diagnostics, and product development. 

Custom monoclonal antibody production is complex, technical, and time-consuming. However, scientists can provide monoclonal antibodies tailored to the customer’s needs. Outlined below are the antibody production services to monoclonal antibodies. 

Phase 1: Antigen preparation 

ustomers may supply ready-to-inject highly purified (>90%) protein or peptide antigens. However, companies can also offer protein production, peptide design, peptide synthesis, and peptide conjugation to carrier protein for use as an immunogen. 

Phase 2: Immunization and ELISA titration 

Animals receive vaccinations and are tested over six weeks. An ELISA titration follows each test-bleed. The customer receives the ELISA results and the crude antisera for review. 

Phase 3: Fusion and screening for positive supernatants 

The animals that respond best are boosted twice more, and their spleen cells are harvested for hybridoma fusion. The positive supernatants are screened using an ELISA assay, and 1 to 2 mL are sent to the customer for evaluation. During customer evaluation, cell lines are preserved (expanded and frozen). 

Phase 4: Subcloning before production 

Parental cell lines can be subcloned using limiting-dilution cloning to obtain daughter cell lines. Subcloning is necessary for long-term clonal stability and to ensure that cells are truly monoclonal and maintain clonality throughout their production. Multiple rounds of limiting-dilution subcloning are used in multi-cycle complete clonality cloning until all wells grow at the same rate, secrete the same antibody concentration, and have the same confirmed isotype. 

Phase 5: Production and purification 

In roller bottles, monoclonal antibodies are produced in cell culture to yield antibody-containing supernatants. Each liter of cell culture produces 10 to 30 mg of antibody. On request, low-endotoxin, serum-free culturing, and high-volume production are available. 

Significantly, affinity purification is carried out using Protein A or Protein G resin, depending on the isotype of the monoclonal antibody. 

Things to Consider for Antibody Production 

Designing Antigen 

A biomarker can make antigens for a protein or peptide in four ways. The epitope(s) you want the antibody to bind to can be reflected in a peptide or recombinant protein. Alternatively, you can immunize with full-length proteins or whole-cell/tissue lysates and screen for clones specific to your biomarker(s)—this is only for monoclonal antibodies. The recombinant protein is generally the best option because it outperforms peptides in immunogenicity and whole protein or cell/tissue specificity. 

Deciding the Discovery Platform 

There are four common antibody discovery platforms. Polyclonal, hybridoma monoclonal, in vivo recombinant, and phage display. Polyclonal and hybridoma monoclonals are suitable for RUO, whereas recombinant monoclonal and phage displays are suitable for DX and therapeutic applications. 

Choose the more expensive platforms if you need antibodies for complex biomarkers, diagnostics, or therapeutics. Significantly, use low-cost platforms if your biomarkers are simple to create antibodies against, and you need a quick turnaround time. 

Choosing the Host 

Rabbit and mice are common hosts for antibody production. Scientists such as Georges Köhler and César Milstein pioneered the first generation of monoclonal technology using mice in the 1980s.  

Rabbits have a more robust immune system and can produce higher affinity antibodies. Also, rabbit monoclonal antibodies have gained a reputation in the last decade and are in high demand among researchers and assay developers. 

In the case of multiplexing staining, antibodies from different hosts will be required to produce distinct stains of your biomarkers, and you may need to investigate more exotic hosts such as donkeys, goats, guinea pigs, and llamas. 

Using the Right Adjuvant 

If you use a platform that involves immunization (other than phage display), you may encounter a problem with a low immune response from the host. The class Freund’s Adjuvant is usually sufficient for eliciting an immune response. 

Selecting the Vendors 

While the basic concept of antibody development is not difficult to grasp, numerous unknowns are involved in the process. You can reduce many of these uncertainties with knowledge and experience. Choosing vendors with the most experience with your specific application is critical to success. 

Communication is also essential, so when making initial contact with potential vendors, look for those who have a customer-service-centric culture and good communication habits because if something goes wrong, which is more than likely, you want a responsive point of contact to be there for you and work with you to solve the problems. 

Importance of Custom Monoclonal Immune Production Services 

Monoclonal antibodies are created for specific tasks in disease-fighting due to their homogeneity. They can be designed to target a specific cell to suppress or induce certain biological processes. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies are commonly used in gold standard techniques like ELISA, western blotting, flow cytometry, and other affinity-based assays or isolation techniques. A monoclonal antibody aids in the detection of a specific antigen of interest in ELISA.  

Monoclonal antibodies can also assist in detecting specific cells in flow cytometry and can be used to purify proteins. 


In contrast to polyclonal antibodies, a mixture of antibodies against various antigen epitopes, monoclonal antibodies are specific against a single epitope on the antigen. Because of the specificity of monoclonal antibodies, researchers can probe for that epitope even when the changes in that epitope are subtle—as little as a single amino acid change.  

Also, because monoclonal antibodies are generated from a hybridoma or recombinant cell line, there will be an infinite supply of these antibodies with the same specificity and structure. Finally, choosing a reliable vendor is essential to ensure quality services. 

Jack henry
Jack henry
Hi, I'm admin of techfily.com if you need any post and any information then kindly contact us! Mail: techfily.com@gmail.com WhatsApp: +923233319956 Best Regards,

Related Articles

Stay Connected


Latest Articles