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Endometrial Cancer From symptoms to treatment


How often are you bothered by pelvic pain? Does menopause cause vaginal bleeding? Then, proceed with caution! Endometrial cancer may be the cause of these symptoms. Here, we explain what it is and offer advice on how to deal with it.

The endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus or womb, and it is from there that endometrial cancer develops. Endometrial cancer is the most common kind of uterine cancer, yet the reasons of this disease are a mystery. Most cases of endometrial cancer (also known as uterine cancer) have their earliest stages in the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Uterine sarcoma (cancer of the uterine muscle and supporting tissues) is another kind of uterine cancer that can develop, however it is considerably less prevalent than endometrial cancer. {Pro tip: Leo hospital kalpetta}

The incidence of cancer is on the rise, but the white population has a disproportionately high rate of endometrial cancer while India and Japan have the lowest rates. In reality, uterine cancer to cervical cancer incidence in India is somewhere between 1:8 and 1:15. Reasons for this discrepancy with the West include longer life expectancy, more liberal use of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, and better diagnosis rates thanks to greater public and medical knowledge.

Endometrial cancer risk factors include being under the age of 60, being a nulliparous woman (never having had children), being exposed to unopposed oestrogen on a regular basis (as seen in polycystic ovary syndrome, estrogen-secreting tumors, estrogen-only HRT/hormone replacement therapy, and estrogen-producing ovarian/adrenal tumors), experiencing a delayed menopause, being overweight, having high blood pressure, and being diabetic (as a result of certain drugs).

The Symptoms

Because of these warning signals, it’s typically diagnosed early. The most common sign is abnormal bleeding from the uterus or cervix, which can take the form of heavy or prolonged menstrual flow in premenopausal women or of any vaginal hemorrhage in postmenopausal women. Other symptoms include vaginal discharge that is fluid or smelly and discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvis. Because 5% of women may not have any symptoms, screening ultrasounds are recommended.

The Risk Factors

Among postmenopausal women, the chance of developing endometrial cancer is very high. Early menstruation, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, infertility, atypical periods, an overgrowth of endometrial cells (endometrial hyperplasia), and a family history of endometrial, colorectal, or breast cancer are all risk factors.

The Diagnosis

Unusual vaginal bleeding in women over the age of 40 warrants a visit to a physician. Although asymptomatic, women with the aforementioned risk factors should have pelvic ultrasound screening for endometrial abnormalities every two to three years prior to menopause and every year after menopause. Endometrial surveillance should be more stringent for women who are taking drugs like Tamoxifen as maintenance treatment for breast cancer. If an ultrasound reveals something out of the ordinary, a tissue sample from the uterus internal cellular lining (endometrial biopsy) must be taken to rule out cancer. MRI and PET CT are just two examples of the many diagnostic tools available to aid in determining the severity of an illness and its response to therapy. (To know more: visit: https://techfily.com/)

When caught early, endometrial malignancy has the best prognosis of any female cancer. When compared to other female genital malignancies, the 5-year survival rate is much higher at 81% if diagnosed at Stage I, 73% at Stage II, and over 50% at Stage III. Therefore, the probability of a full cure is greatly increased by early discovery (through investigations and biopsy) and rapid treatment procedure.

The Treatment

The severity of an illness at the time of diagnosis determines the course of therapy. Traditional therapy is a drastic surgical procedure that includes removal of the uterus (cervix and body), fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding vaginal tissue and draining lymph nodes. Depending on how far along the disease is, it may be necessary to use a combination of radiation and chemotherapy to bring about a cure. Multiple births in a single pregnancy (multiparty) and using combination oral contraceptives for only one or two years have also been shown to reduce the likelihood of developing endometrial cancer.

Take-Away Message:

Following a course of therapy, it is crucial to monitor the patient closely and schedule follow-up appointments so that any signs of recurrence or distant metastasis may be identified and addressed. In addition, remember that being overweight increases the risk of endometrial cancer, therefore achieving and maintaining a healthy weight should be a key focus. To lose weight, you need to raise your activity level and decrease your calorie consumption by selecting a healthy diet.

Ahsan Khan
Ahsan Khan
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